Wells and their types


The most common device used by men for tapping groundwater is the well. The well is a vertical opening or shaft-hole excavated into the zones of saturation. Wells serve as reservoirs into which groundwater moves and from which it can be pumped to the surface. The amount of water that a well will yield depends chiefly on (i) the permeability of the aquifer, (ii) thickness of the aquifer, and (iii) diameter of the well.

Types of wells:

Depending upon the method of construction, the wells may be classified into the following groups.

  • Dug Wells: Dug wells are excavated by means of picks and shovels and their diameter is usually more than one meter. These wells seldom exceed a depth of 20 meters. The storage of water in these types of wells depends on the depth and diameter of the well.
  • Driven Wells: The driven wells are excavated by means of driving pipe, which has driving point at one end. These types of wells are constructed with pipes of width, not more than 7.0 inches. These wells are dug vertically by driving in piping directly. It is a capture engineered structure that consists of a perforated pipe with a pointed end, which is driven¬†by a variety of techniques as far as the water table, in soft or medium-hard ground. Other names are instantaneous well or sand-point well.
  • Bored Wells: As the name indicate, this type of well is constructed by drilling boring pipes deep into the ground with the help of machines (power auger), and hand.
  • Jetted Wells:¬†These wells are excavated by means of hollow pipes with a water jet. A water jet has an enormous erosive and abrasive ability. These wells are constructed generally in the areas of soft soil.

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