UN Conventions on Law of the Sea.
The third UN conference on the Law of Sea (UNCLOS III) which lasted from 1973 to 1982 passed the UN convention on law. This is also called Law of the Sea treaty. This law defines the rights and responsibilities of the nations using oceans of the world. It also marks guidelines for business environments, and the management of marine natural resources. UNCLOS came into effect in 1994 and so far 158 countries has signed it. United Nations has no direct role in the implementation of covention on Law of the Sea.
UNCLOS I: (1956-58)
The first convention of United Nations on Law of the Sea was convened on 1956 and lasted till 1958. Treaties under this convention were signed are as under:
- Convention on territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone. (Enforced on September 10, 1964).
- Convention on the Continental Shelf. (Enforced on June 10, 1964).
- Convention of the High Seas. (Enforced on September 30, 1962).
- Convention on Fishing Conservation of the living resources of the High Seas. (Enforced on March 20, 1966).
UNCLOS II: (1960)
UNCLOS II was held in 1960 in the city of Switzerland, Geneva. This convention lasted for 18 days. Due to the constraints to the cold war between the two super powers; Russian Federation and United States of America, no agreement could be signed.
UNCLOS III: (1973-82)
In 1973, about 160 nations of the world attended the third United Nations meeting on Sea Law. This convention remained enforced till 1982. A resulting convention came into force on 16th November, 1994. The issues covered by the convention included the following:
- Fixing territorial limits in open seas
- Archipelagic status
- Navigation Rules
- Transit regimes
- Exclusive Economic Zones
- Settlements of disputes
- Continental Shelf Jurisdiction
- Deep Seabed Mining
- Protection of the marine environment
- Scientific Research