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Phenomena associated with volcanism

Volcanism is a natural phenomenon, according to which the interior hot material of earth’s asthenospher (one of earth’s layers, which forms upper mantle) is extruded out through a vent. Volcanism develops a couple of landforms. Apart from landform formation there are some other phenomena associated with volcanism. Hot springs, fumaroles, and sometimes geysers are found in volcanic regions.

Hot springs: Hot springs are commonly found associated with volcanic activity of recent date. Surface water that penetrates the ground may be heated either by contact with hot rocks or by gaseous emanations from the volcanic rocks. When it remerges on the surface, it gives rise to hot springs.

Hot water springs

Fumeroles: When jets of steam and hot gases are discharged from a volcanic vent, it is called a fumarole. Solfatars are the fumaroles emitting mainly sulfurous gases. Fumaroles often deposit solid minerals (volcanic sublimate) near the vent. Deposits of native sulfur, realgar, and orpiment may form in this way.


Geysers: Fountains of hot water ejected periodically are called ”geysers”. Geysers often rise to heights of 30-60 meters. After the jet of water ceases, a column of steam rushes out, usually with a thundering roar. On of the best-known geyser areas in the world is Yellowstone National Park (USA). Geysers are also found in other parts of the world, including New Zealand and Iceland. The siliceous deposits formed around geysers are known as ”geyserites”.


Mud volcanoes: In this case, hydrocarbon gases, muddy saline water, and some traces of petroleum are discharge from cones of dried mud. Mud volcanoes usually occur near oil fields and they do not appear to show any connection with the actual volcanic activity.

Mud volcanoes

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