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Introduction to Geology

Geology is a Science, which is devoted to the study of the Earth. It deals with all the features of the earth’s surface, its origin, composition, structure, history, inhabitants, and processes of change in its features. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth’s materials, structures, processes, and organisms have changed over time.

Bridge Engineering

Bridges: Bridges form an important part of the transportation rules. They are constructed across the rivers to carry highways and railways. In a country roads and railways often follow the shortest route and therefore, their alignment is determined much before the construction of bridges. As a result, the site of a bridge does not allow …

What is Geology. Its main branches.

Geology is a Science which is devoted to the study of the Earth. It deals with all the features of earth’s surface, its origin, composition, structure, history, inhabitants and processes of change in its features. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth’s materials, structures, processes and organisms have changed over time. …

Geology of Reservoirs

Reservoirs are artificial lakes, which are created by the construction of dams across rivers. A reservoir may fail either due to excessive leakage of water or as a result of rapid sedimentation or rupture due to earthquakes. Problems associated with Reservoirs:  The main geological problem connected with the reservoirs are: (i) groundwater conditions, (ii) permeable …

Problems associated with Dams/ Failure of Dams

Some of the most common and frequently occurring problems associated with dams are the factors, which cause a dam to fail. Most of the dam failures, which have occurred in the past are not due to faulty design or poor construction, but mainly due to neglect of the geological flaws. The main geological problems that …

Geology of Dams

Dams Dams are a common and cheap means of storing water. Dams are constructed as barriers across the rivers thereby storing their water. They are built mainly to control floods, for irrigation lands, for generating electricity and supplying water to industries and cities. A dam that serves more than one purpose is called a ”multipurpose …

Geology and Civil Engineering

Mining is an important branch of geology, and it has been known for a long, but its use in ”civil engineering” has been recognized only in comparatively recent years. The importance of geology in civil engineering may briefly be outlined as follows: We can derive a systematic knowledge of construction by means of geology. The …

Seismograph

”Seismographs” or ”Seismometers” are instruments, which detect and record earthquake waves. A seismograph contains a heavyweight suspended from a support, which is attached to bedrock. When seismic waves from a distant earthquake reach the instrument the inertia of the weight keeps it stationary, while the earth and support vibrate. The movement of the earth in …

Features of Ocean basin floor

Mid Ocean Ridges: Mid Ocean Ridges (MOR) is a seafloor mountainous system, which is formed as a result of plate tectonic movement of the crustal plate. Its depth is 2,600 meters, and it rises about 2,000 meters above the deepest portion of an ocean basin. Mid-oceanic ridges are found in all of the major oceans. …

Introduction to Mass movement and its types.

Mass movement is defined as the movement of Earth material by the force of gravity. In other words, it is the detachment of rock materials and their down-slope transportation. According to R.J Chorley: ”Mass movement is the detachment and downslope transport of soil and rock material under the influence of gravity. The sliding and flowing …

Seismology, Seismic Waves, Seismograph:

Seismology is the science, which deals with all the topics related to seismic waves. The seismic waves are the pulses of energy generated by earthquakes, which can travel through all parts of the earth. These waves can be measured and recorded by an instrument called Seismograph. A seismograph consists of a pendulum with a fixed …

What is mid-oceanic ridge (MOR)?

A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics. It typically has a depth of ~ 2,600 meters (8,500 ft) and rises about two kilometers above the deepest portion of an ocean basin. This feature is where seafloor spreading takes place along a divergent plate boundary. In the middle of the ocean, there …

Volcanic Form

Volcanic Form The erupted volcano comes in different forms. These forms are given as under: (1). Ash Cone: These are also called Tuff Cones. When heated rapidly by lava, water flashes to steam and expands violently, fragmenting huge amounts of lava into plumes of very fine grains of ash. This ash falls around the volcanic vent, creating an ash …

What are Calderas (Volcano)?

The empty chamber of a volcano formed after the completion of the eruption is known as the Caldera. As the eruption of the volcano comes to an end, the vent and crater remain as a hollow shaped cavity. According to H.J de Blij, “A volcano‘s lava and pyroclastics come from a subterranean magma chamber, a …

Plate tectonics; All you need to know about plate tectonics

PLATES-TECTONICS: The word tectonic means deformation within the Earth’s crust and the geological structures produced by deformation, including folds, faults and development of mountain chains. Plate Tectonics: Plate tectonics is the theory or model to explain the distribution, evolution, and causes of the Earth’s crystal features. It proposes that the crust and part of the …

Energy Resouces.

Major energy resources include Coal, Natural Gas, Oil, Wood, Nuclear, Solar, Hydrogen, wind and Tidal power etc. Since the beginning of industrialization in the 17th century, the use of these energy resources has been increasing year by year. Coal which is the traditional resource of energy has slowly given way to the latest resources such …