Earth is the planet on which we live and possibly the only planet in the Universe where humans and other living organisms live. Earth is the third closest planet to the sun in the solar system. It revolves around the Sun in a fixed orbit at a distance of 149.6 million km completing a revolution in 365.2 days. It has one satellite called Moon which is one-fourth of its size. In shape, the Earth does not completely resemble a ball, but an oblate spheroid, which is flattened at the poles. Similarly, the circumference of Earth at the equator is 40,075 km but its circumference at poles is 40024 km. The earth covers a total area of 510.075 million square km. Out of this, the land covers 29.3 % area, while the water covers 70.7 % area. The landmass is divided into seven continents viz., Asia, Africa, Europe, South America, North America, Australia, and Antarctica. Out of these Asia is the largest with 29.8% followed by Africa(20.3%) and North America (16.2%). The water surface on Earth comprises several oceans and seas. Out of these, the Pacific ocean is the largest followed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. Similarly, major seas of the world include the Mediterranean sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, Hudson Bay, the North Sea, and the Black Sea.
The surface of Earth has many elevations in the shape of mountain ranges. Out of these, Himalaya mountains, Karakorum Mountains and Hindu Kush mountains in Asia, Atlas mountains, Kilimanjaro and Cape ranges in Africa, Alpine mountains, Pyrenees mountains and Alp mountains in Europe, the Appalachians in North America, and the Andes mountains in South America are prominent. There are many large rivers on the surface of Earth that originate from the mountains or lakes and empty themselves into seas and oceans. These rivers include the Mississippi River, Amazon River, Nile River, Congo River, Darling River, and Indus River.
Physical features of Earth include famous plateaus which are found in all continents. These include the following plateaus:
- Tibet Plateau in China (Asia).
- Dasht-e-Loot in Iran (Asia).
- Potohar and Balochistan Plateau in Pakistan (Asia).
- Anatolia Plateau in Turkey (Asia).
- Sahara, Ahaggar, and Tibesti Plateaus in Africa.
- The Guiana Highlands, the Brasilian Highlands, The Patagonian Plateau in South America.
- Colorado, British, Columbia, Yoken Plateaus, and the Canadian Shield in North America.
- Baltic Shield, Vorges Plateau and Boemian Plateaus in Europe.
- Kimberly Plateau, Gibson desert, Victorian desert, and Great Sandy desert in Australia.
The planet Earth witnesses different types of climates in different regions. In this regard, the world is divided into the following five zones.
- Tropical Zone (Torrid Zone).
- North Temperate Zone
- South Temperate Zone
- North Frigid Zone
- South Frigid Zone
In respect to different temperatures, precipitations, forests, and cultivation of the world comprise of the following natural zone:
- Tropical Region
- Hot Desert Region
- Mediterranean Region.
- Monsoon Region
- Saint Lawrence Region
- Steppes Region
- East China Type Region
- Tropical Grasslands
- Taiga Region
- Tundra Climate Region
- Prairies Region
- Ice-Cape Region