Presently, there are 194 member nations of the United Nations Organisation. These countries cover seven continents of the world. Economically speaking, there is a great disparity among these nations due to their high and low GDP and PCI levels.
(1). More Developed Countries (MDCs):
According to Kofi Annan, the former Secretary General of United Nations, a developed country is defined as “One that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in safe environment”. A country’s development level can be judged by ts Human Development Index (HDI). Those nations that possess an HDI of more than 0.9 are listed as Developed countries. In 2009, Norway topped this list with an HDI of 0.971 followed by Australia (0.970), Ireland ().969) and Canada (0.966). According to a report of United Nations Development Fund issued in 2019, countries with highest HDI are as under:
Group of Eight (G-8):
The group of Eight Club (G-8) comprises of eight highly developed industrial nations of the world. It includes USA, UK, France, Japan, Italy, Germany, Canada and Russia. This organisation was established on 22nd September, 1985. These countries contribute 50% of world’s exports and 64 % of world’s total GDP but have only 12 % of the population. The Group of Eight holds regular summit conferences to safeguard interests of member nations.
World top exporters in 2019 are as below:
IMF Advanced Economies:
International Monetary Fund (IMF) has listed 34 countries as Advanced Economies of the world, which are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Rep;, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hongkong, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxermbourg, Malta, Netherland, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom and United States.
(2): Least Developed Countries:
There are many countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America which fall in the category of Least Developed or developing countries. These nations lack modern industries, natural resources and high Per Capita Incomes. Majority of LDCs belong to Africa. These poor nations include Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somali, Togo and Uganda. The imports of these countries often exceeds their exports.
Group of Fifteen (G-15):
Group of fifteen consists of fifteen developing countries of the world. This forum was established in September 1989 to counterfoil the dominance of G-8. Alan Garcia the president of Peru and Rajiv Gandhi Prime Minister of India were the main brains who launched this organization. The G-15 include the following countries.
|1. Algeria||2. Argentina||3. Jamaica||4. Brazil|
|5. Egypt||6. India||7. Indonesia||8. Venezuela|
|9. Peru||10. Senegal||11. Malaysia||12. Mexico|
|13. Nigeria||14. Serbia||15. Zimbabwe|
- Relationship between LDCs and Most Developed Countries
- Major Industries
- World’s Energy Resources
- Types of Fish
- Requirements for Commercial Fishing
- Major Fisheries and Types of Fish
- Major Fish Exporters and Importers
- United Nations Conventions on Law of Sea
- Fisheries Sector in Pakistan
- Forest Resources of the World
- Mineral Resources of the World
- Manufacturing Industry
- Factors Controlling Industrial Location
- Max Weber’s Theory of Industrial Location