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Introduction to Regional Geography

Definition:

Regional geography is a major branch of geography, which focuses on the interaction of different cultural and natural geofactors in a specific land or landscape, while its counterpart, systematic geography, concentrates on a specific geofactor at the global level.

Basics:

Attention is paid to unique characteristics of a particular region such as natural elements, human elements, and regionalization which covers the techniques of delineating space into regions. Rooted in the tradition of the German-speaking countries, the two pillars of regional geography are the idiographic study of Länder or spatial individuals (specific places, countries, continents) and the typological study of Landschaften or spatial types (landscapes such as coastal regions, mountain regions, border regions, etc.).

Appraoch:

Regional geography is also a certain approach to geographical study, comparable to quantitative geography or critical geography. This approach prevailed during the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, a period when then regional geography paradigm was central within the geographical sciences. It was later criticised for its descriptiveness and the lack of theory. Strong criticism was leveled against it in particular during the 1950s and the quantitative revolution. Main critics were G. H. T. Kimble and Fred K. Schaefer. The regional geography paradigm has influenced many other geographical sciences, including economic geography and geomorphology. Regional geography is still taught in some universities as a study of the major regions of the world, such as Northern and Latin America, Europe, and Asia and their countries. In addition, the notion of a city-region approach to the study of geography, underlining urban-rural interactions, gained credence since the mid-1980s. Some geographers have also attempted to reintroduce a certain amount of regionalism since the 1980s. This involves a complex definition of regions and their interactions with other scales.

Regional geography was once used as a basis for the geomorphological works such as those of David Linton and Henri Baulig. Yet, according to Karna Lidmar-Bergström regional geography is since the 1990s not longer accepted by mainstream scholarship as a basis for geomorphological studies.

Geographic Division of the World:

On regional basis, the world is divided into seven continent viz Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Australia & Oceania and Antarctica. These continents comprise of following 195 countries as detailed against their names:

Serial No. Names of Continent No. of Countries
1 Asia 46
2 Africa 54
3 Europe 46
4 North America 17
5 South America 18
6 Australia & Oceania 14
7 Antarctica 0

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