It is a form of agricultural activity which involves raising of livestock. The pastoral people rely on animals for their livelihood. These animals include buffaloes, oxen, horses, goats, lambs, sheep, dogs, cats and deer etc. Most of these animals are raised and reared in large farms. This activity is also known as animal domestication. Its history goes back to 8000 years when these animals were first domesticated by the primitive man. However, with the passage of time, this profession has been streamlined and developed on modern lines through the use of advanced technology. According to an estimate, currently about 10 million sq.miles (double the cultivated land) territory is under the use of pastoralists. There are about 15 million pastoralists out of which 11 million are in Indus river basin, Middle East, China, Russian Federation and Northern Eurasia. Similarly the remaining 3.5 million pastoralists are active in Sahara, Sudan, Sahel and other African nations.
The live stock raised by the pastoralists not only provides financial income to them but also serve as a great source of food. These animals provide milk, cheese, butter and meat in plenty to the herders and the population. the animal farms provide milk to the dairy farms where it is processed into various products.