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Lithosphere (Upper Mantle and Crust)

Earth is divided into four spheres, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. Spheres of the earth are explained in the previous post: Spheres of the Earth. As this chapter is about the interior of the Earth, therefore, we will discuss in this post only the Lithosphere of the Earth. The Lithosphere: The …

Rivers and Engineering

Rivers and Engineering: The flow of a river brings many positive as well as negative changes on the landscape. The rivers or streams transport sediment from one location to another. We should also need to know that as a river flows and erodes sediment, gravels and silt, which changes the shape of the course of …

Internal Structure of Earth

According to the evidence available on the basis of the density of rocks and their depths, the geophysicist has concluded that the solid ball of Earth is composed of the following layers:(1). Core of the Earth, (2). The Mantle, and (3). Crust of the Earth Core of the Earth: The innermost part of the earth …

Cycle of Erosion

Cycle of Erosion/ Geomorphic Cycle: Cycle of Erosion, which is also called geographic or geomorphic cycle is an idealized model that explains the development of relief in landscapes. The model starts with the erosion that follows uplift of land above a base level and ends, if conditions allow, in the formation of a peneplain (a more or less level land surface produced by erosion over a …

Stages of Valley Development:

The development of stream valleys takes place in a orderly fashion. A valley passes through three stages during its evolution. The three stages are (i) Youth Stage, (ii) Mature Stage, and (iii) Old Stage. (1). Youth or Early Stage: A stream is said to be in the youth stage when it cuts its valley downward …

Types of Streams

On the basis of development and origin, the streams have been classified into four groups: (i) consequent streams, (ii) subsequent streams, (iii) antecedent streams, and (iv) superposed streams. (1). Consequent Streams: Consequent Streams are those which follow the slope of the initial land surface. The course the consequent streams is the direct consequence of the …

Drainage System

In geomorphology, the drainage systems, which are also known as a stream or river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin. They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks and the gradient of the land. Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view …

Base Level and Graded Stream

Longitudinal Profile: Plot of the relative elevation of a stream bed from headwaters to mouth is called its “longitudinal profile”. The longitudinal profile of the stream is generally concave upward which is in accordance with the steady downstream decrease in slope. Base Level: The level which controls the depth of stream erosion is called a …

Depositional Landforms

A stream erodes a large amount of sediments and debris of the rocks and earth surface. The separation of sediments from the surface is called Weathering. The movement of these sediments from their origin to low lying areas is called erosion. Both the processes of weathering and erosion are collectively called Denudation. As a result …

Features of Stream Erosion

Stream erosion brings enormous changes within the landscape of its passage. The power of water gets succeeded in order to remove all kinds of obstacles before its way. It cuts the rocks, erodes the ledges, digs out trenches. Stream water brings many changes to the channel it passes through. Following are the main features of …