Category «Articles»

This category is about the articles about geology, geography, oceanography, climatology, meteorology, and other sub-fields of earth sciences.

Volcanoes and their types

A volcano is a vent or fissure in the earth’s crust through which hot lava and volcanic gases are thrown out. Volcanic eruptions may be either explosive or quiet. The earth’s upper mantle (asthenosphere), under the crust, is nearly molten. Magma originates at this depth. They migrate upwards, often along faults. In a volcano, the …

Earthquakes

1. Introduction to an Earthquake An Earthquake may be defined as the shaking and trembling of the Earth’s surface caused by sudden releases of stress with the crust of Earth. Thus an earthquake releases the energy that has been gradually stored through the stress of increasing deformation of rocks. The released energy takes the form …

Agents of Erosion

Erosion takes place usually through the following agents: Running Water Glaciers Wind Coastal Waves Chemical Solution (1). Running Water: Running water in the form of rivers and streams is a major source of erosion. Rivers and the streams act as sculptors, carvers, and cutters of the mountains, valleys, and plains through which they pass. The …

Penck’s Cycle of Erosion

Walther Penck was a German geo-scientist born in 1888 and died in 1923. He worked on geomorphology and landscape very deeply in the German language. His sudden death left his work uncompleted. He pointed out flaws in the Davis Theory of Erosion. According to Penck, the processes of upheaval and erosion go side by side. …

Davis Cycle of Erosion

William Moris Davis (1850-1934) was a prominent American geographer who founded the Association of American Geographers in 1904. He also put forward a theory of the cycle of erosion. The main points of his theory are as under: A cycle of erosion would affect all landscapes. The cycle consists of three stages. Youth Stage, Mature …

How to protect in earthquakes?

Earthquakes bring many changes to the natural and cultural landscape, but the greatest damage caused when buildings fail to survive an earthquake. Earthquake does not directly kill people, but people are killed by their own constructed buildings, which are vulnerable to an earthquake. Avoiding constructing buildings while fearing earthquakes is irrational. So in order to …

Seismology, Seismic Waves, Seismograph:

Seismology is the science, which deals with all the topics related to seismic waves. The seismic waves are the pulses of energy generated by earthquakes, which can travel through all parts of the earth. These waves can be measured and recorded by an instrument called Seismograph. A seismograph consists of a pendulum with a fixed …

Measurement of Earthquakes

Measuring of an Earthquake: Generally, earthquakes occur at depths of lesser than 100 kilometers under the ground. The earthquakes are frequently noted by the instruments like seismograph on daily basis. The location of the earthquakes are also determined by the seismographs. The point at which an earthquake is noted is known as the focus-point or …

Types of Earthquake waves

An earthquake produces four types of waves: (1). P-Waves (Primary Waves), (2). S-Waves (Secondary Waves), (3). L-Waves (Surface Waves), and (4). Rayleigh Waves: The tectonic movement releases a huge amount of energy, which is known as Seismic energy. Seismic energy express itself in the form of seismic waves. These seismic waves are known as earthquakes. …

Volcanism and Landform formation (Landscape)

Volcanism and Landform Formation Denudation upon the forms produced by vulcanicity results in the evolution of a volcanic landscape. In the views of F.J. Monkhouse, “The product of vulcanicity vary from hardest of lavas to the softest of ashes often in close juxtaposition.” It has been witnessed that volcanic activity creates unique and distinct landscapes. …