Category «Articles»

This category is about the articles about geology, geography, oceanography, climatology, meteorology, and other sub-fields of earth sciences.

How to protect in earthquakes?

Earthquakes bring many changes to the natural and cultural landscape, but the greatest damage caused when buildings fail to survive an earthquake. Earthquake does not directly kill people, but people are killed by their own constructed buildings, which are vulnerable to an earthquake. Avoiding constructing buildings while fearing earthquakes is irrational. So in order to …

Seismology, Seismic Waves, Seismograph:

Seismology is the science, which deals with all the topics related to seismic waves. The seismic waves are the pulses of energy generated by earthquakes, which can travel through all parts of the earth. These waves can be measured and recorded by an instrument called Seismograph. A seismograph consists of a pendulum with a fixed …

Measurement of Earthquakes

Measuring of an Earthquake: Generally, earthquakes occur at depths of lesser than 100 kilometers under the ground. The earthquakes are frequently noted by the instruments like seismography on daily basis. The location of the earthquakes are also determined by the seismographs. The point at which an earthquake is noted is known as the focus-point or …

Types of Earthquake waves

An earthquake produces four types of waves: (1). P-Waves (Primary Waves), (2). S-Waves (Secondary Waves), (3). L-Waves (Surface Waves), and (4). Rayleigh Waves: The tectonic movement releases a huge amount of energy, which is known as Seismic energy. Seismic energy express itself in the form of seismic waves. These seismic waves are known as earthquakes. …

Volcanism and Landform formation (Landscape)

Volcanism and Landform Formation Denudation upon the forms produced by vulcanicity results in the evolution of a volcanic landscape. In the views of F.J. Monkhouse, “The product of vulcanicity vary from hardest of lavas to the softest of ashes often in close juxtaposition.” It has been witnessed that volcanic activity creates unique and distinct landscapes. …

Volcanic Form

Volcanic Form The erupted volcano comes in different forms. These forms are given as under: (1). Ash Cone: These are also called Tuff Cones. When heated rapidly by lava, water flashes to steam and expands violently, fragmenting huge amounts of lava into plumes of very fine grains of ash. This ash falls around the volcanic vent, creating an ash …

Active, dormant and Extinct Volcanoes

Active Volcanoes: An active volcano may be defined as the one which is definitely known to have erupted periodically in historic times. Kilauea volcano on Hawaii is the world’s most active volcano, followed by Etna in Italy and Piton de la Fournaise on La Réunion island. Further ordering the value of the activity of volcanoes …

What are Calderas (Volcano)?

The empty chamber of a volcano formed after the completion of the eruption is known as the Caldera. As the eruption of the volcano comes to an end, the vent and crater remain as a hollow shaped cavity. According to H.J de Blij, “A volcano‘s lava and pyroclastics come from a subterranean magma chamber, a …

Volcano and its types

A volcano is a vent in the Earth’s surface, which allows the interior molten magma to erupt out due to extreme pressure and convection. The magma when it comes out of the interior of the earth is known as lava. The lava is composed of solid and molten rocks, debris, and gases, and fluid of …

Ten causes of an Earthquake

An earthquake is an intense thrilling vibration through the earth’s surface. An earthquake may range from a minor vibration (difficult to feel) to a devastating earth movement. An earthquake is a catastrophic shake of the surface of the earth, which can cause tremendous changes over and under the surface of the earth. In the historic …