Anti-mining factors

Anti-mining factors A famous German humanist scholar, mineralogist and metallurgist Georgius Agricola (1556) said; “People were always divided in their opinion about mining, as some praised it highly while others condemned it fiercely.” Agricola reports that enemies of mining in his time deplored not only harmful effects on the immediate environs but even moral aspects

What are ore deposits?

What are ore deposits? The natural concentrations of valuable metals, minerals or rocks are known as ore deposits, which can be economically exploited. Concentrations that are too small or too low grade for mining are called occurrences or mineralizations. Understanding the economic implications of the difference between these terms is very important. Unfortunately, their wrong

Economic Geology and its Scope

What is Economic Geology? Economic geology is a branch of geology that focuses on the study of Earth’s materials and processes that are relevant to the extraction and utilization of mineral and energy resources. This field is concerned with identifying and understanding the geological processes that create ore deposits and the physical and chemical properties

Economic Geology

Economic Geology Economic geology is a branch of geology that focuses on the study of Earth’s materials and processes in order to understand and identify mineral resources that are economically viable to extract. Economic geology is concerned with the discovery, evaluation, and extraction of mineral resources, such as metallic and non-metallic minerals, petroleum, natural gas,

Origin and formation of the Igneous Rocks

The origin of igneous rocks starts from the cooling and solidification of magma. The mineral composition of igneous rocks varies from rock to rock. We can find the mineral composition of igneous rocks by means of studying the chemical composition of the magma from which the rock has been crystallized. Because there is a large variety of igneous

What are Igneous Rocks?

What are Igneous Rocks? Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten material, such as magma or lava, that has cooled and hardened. They are one of the three main types of rocks, alongside sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks can be classified into two categories: intrusive and extrusive. Intrusive igneous rocks form beneath

Geologic Time Scale

What is Geologic Time Scale? The geological time scale is a system of chronological dating that relates geological events and processes to the Earth’s history. It is divided into several time intervals or epochs, each with distinct sets of rock layers, fossil evidence, and other geological markers. These epochs are based on major changes in

Scope of Geology

Scope of Geology The scope of geology is vast and covers the study of the Earth’s physical structure, composition, and history, including its rocks, minerals, fossils, oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere. It encompasses the study of the planet’s internal and external processes, such as plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, erosion, weathering, and climate change. Geology also has

Branches of Geology

Geology is a vast field of science that encompasses the physical, historical, and environmental areas of study. These three areas of the study are the principal subdivisions of geology, which somehow overlap, but they also differ in significant ways overall. Therefore, we divide geology into three fundamental branches; i.e Physical Geology, Historical Geology, and Environmental

How Old is the Earth

The age of the earth as determined by current methods of radiometric dating is about 4600 million years. Before the discovery of radiometric dating, several attempts were made to determine the age of the earth. The important one’s are as follows. From the history of organic evolution. From the rate of sedimentation. From salinity of seawater. From the rate