Chancroid is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection, caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi. Chancroid mainly affects genitalia and its surroundings. It is a rare disease that has almost diminished globally, but you may still find its patients in some African and Caribbean states. Symptoms of Chancroid Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease that affects the genital area. The most common symptoms are as under; It is important to see a doctor if you have any of these symptoms or suspect that you may have chancroid. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent further complications and the spread of the disease to others. Complications of Chancroid Chancroid may result in several medical conditions, if not treated promptly. These conditions are as follows; Causes and risk factors of Chancroid Chancroid is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi. The bacterium is spread through sexual contact and can infect the skin around the genital area.» Read more
What is Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib) Atrial Fibrillation, abbreviated as A-Fib, is a severe heart condition in which the heart goes through an irregular, chaotic and rapid heartbeat. An irregular rapid heartbeat is also known as “arrhythmia”. Atrial Fibrillation is dangerous and may be life-threatening, as it leads to blood clots in the heart, and then stroke, and heart failure. The resulting conditions of Atrial Fibrillation are life-threatening, otherwise, it itself is not fatal. In a normal person, the upper part of the heart (atria) beats parallel to the lower chamber of the heart (ventricles). On the other hand, in Atrial Fibrillation, the beats of the Atria and the Ventricles are not simultaneous. The unmatching beats of the two portions of the heart are known as Atrial Fibrillation. It may not have symptoms in many patients, however, palpitations (fast & pounding heartbeat) and short breaths are very primary symptoms, a patient» Read more
Geology is a vast field of science that encompasses the physical, historical, and environmental areas of study. These three areas of the study are the principal subdivisions of geology, which somehow overlap, but they also differ in significant ways overall. Therefore, we divide geology into three fundamental branches; i.e Physical Geology, Historical Geology, and Environmental Geology. Read: Introduction to Geology 1. Physical Geology The study of the solid earth and the processes, which put an impact and bring changes to the physical landscape of the earth, like erosion, volcanic activities, convection of mantle, and earthquakes, etc, is known as Physical Geology. Physical geology can further be divided into many branches, which differ from one another in many ways, but are still interrelated and thus included in physical geology overall. These branches are: Petrology: This branch of physical geology includes the study of the origin, structure, history, and mineral composition of» Read more
The age of the earth as determined by current methods of radiometric dating is about 4600 million years. Before the discovery of radiometric dating, several attempts were made to determine the age of the earth. The important one’s are as follows.
From the history of organic evolution.
From the rate of sedimentation.
From salinity of seawater.
From the rate of Cooling.
There are dozens of theories about the origin of the Earth. In general the theories of origin of the Solar System or earth can be divided into two groups: (i) Evolutionary theories (ii) Catastrophic Theories.
Evolutionary Theories: The theories which suggest that planets are formed during the evolution of the sun, are called ”Evolutionary Theories“. Nebular Hypothesis is an example of these theories.
Catastrophic Theories: ”Catastrophic Theories” are those which imagine that planets are formed by some special accident or catastrophe, such as the close approach of two stars or by collision of two stars. However, as the stars are so far apart in the galaxy, the possibility of such a catastrophe is extremely rare. the examples of Catastrophic Theories are the planetesimal and gaseous tidal hypothesis.» Read more
Solar System The Earth is a planet. It is a member of the solar system. Nine planets and the sun are the main bodies of the ”Solar System”. The planets in the order of increasing distance from the sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Each planet moves around the sun and maintains an elliptical orbit. The orbits of all the planets are almost in the same plane which is close to the equatorial plane of the Sun. The planets also rotate about their axis. About 99.85% of the mass of the solar system is contained within the sun, while the planets collectively make up most of the remaining 0.15 %. On the basis of their location, the planets can be divided into two groups; (i) Inner Planets: Which include Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Earth, (ii) Outer Planets: Which include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and» Read more
Geology is a Science, which is devoted to the study of the Earth. It deals with all the features of the earth’s surface, its origin, composition, structure, history, inhabitants, and processes of change in its features. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth’s materials, structures, processes, and organisms have changed over time.» Read more
Composition The composition of almost all lava of the Earth’s crust is dominated by silicate minerals: mostly feldspars, feldspathoids, olivine, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas and quartz. Rare nonsilicate lavas can form by local melting of nonsilicate mineral deposits or by separation of a magma into separate immiscible silicate and nonsilicate liquid phases. Silicate lavas Silicate lavas are molten mixtures dominated by oxygen and silicon, the Earth’s most abundant chemical elements, with smaller quantities of aluminium, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, and potassium, and minor amounts of many other elements. Petrologists routinely express the composition of a silicate lava in terms of the weight or molar mass fraction of the oxides of the major elements (other than oxygen) present in the lava. The physical behavior of silicate magmas is dominated by the silica component. Silicon ions in lava strongly bind to four oxygen ions in a tetrahedral arrangement. If an oxygen ion is bound to two silicon ions in the melt, it is described as a bridging oxygen, and lava with many clumps or chains of silicon ions connected by» Read more
Diagnosis of Amethyst, This post is incomplete, it will be composed soon Chemical composition and properties of Amethyst, Physical Properties of Amethyst, Structure of Amethyst, Colours and tone of Amethys, Occurrence of Amethyst, Historical Importance of Amethyst, Metaphysical Importance of Amethyst, Artificial Synthesis of Amethyst, Cultural Association of Amethys, Uses of Amethyst, Types of Amethyst, Inclusion of Amethys in Amertrine:, Modification of Amethyst, Maintenance of Amethyst, Other simulants of Amethyst, Price of pure amethyst in different countries» Read more
“Metamorphic Rocks” are formed from the older rocks when they are subjected to increased temperature, pressure, and shearing stresses at considerable depth in the earth’s crust. The older rocks may be either sedimentary, igneous, or other metamorphic rocks. During metamorphism, recrystallization takes place essentially in the solid-state and new minerals and new textures are produced. Agents of Metamorphism The agents which bring about metamorphic changes in the rock are (i) heat, (ii) uniform pressure, (iii) directed pressure or stress, and (iv) chemically active fluids and gases. Heat: Within the earth, temperature increases with depth, and as a result, appreciably high temperature exists at great depths. In the outer part of the earth, the common cause of elevated temperature is the intrusion of hot igneous bodies. Uniform Pressure: The static pressure on rocks is caused by deep burial. This pressure is due to the weight of the overlying layers of the» Read more