Economic Geology

Economic Geology

Economic geology is the study of minerals and rocks that are valuable and useful to human society. It is a subfield of geology that focuses on finding, extracting, processing, and selling minerals and other natural resources. Economic geologists work to find and extract resources such as gold, silver, copper, iron, and coal, which are used in a variety of industries, including construction, energy, and electronics. The goal of economic geology is to identify and extract resources in a way that is sustainable, profitable, and environmentally responsible. This field involves a combination of geological and economic analysis, and geologists in this field must be knowledgeable about both the physical properties of minerals and the market demand for these resources.

Introduction to Economic Geology

    1. Economic geology and its scope
    2. What are ore deposits?
    3. Factors resisting mining
    4. The mineral resources conundrum

Metalliferous Ore Deposits

    1. Geological Ore Formation Process Systems (Metallogenesis)
      1. Magmatic Ore Formation System
      2. Supergene Ore Formation System
      3. Sedimentary Ore Formation System
      4. Diagenetic Ore Formation System
      5. Metamorphic and Metamorphosed Ore Formation System
      6. Metamorphogenic Ore Formation System
      7. Metallogeny (Ore Formation System in Space and Time)
      8. Genetic Classification of Ore and Mineral Deposits
    2. Economic Geology of Metals
      1. The Iron and Steel Metals
      2. Base Metals
      3. Precious Metals
      4. Light Metals
      5. Minor and Speciality Metals

Non-metallic Minerals and Rocks

  1. Industrial Minerals
    1. Andalusite, Kyanite and Sillimanite
    2. Asbestos
    3. Barite and Celestite
    4. Bentonite (Smectite Rocks)
    5. Boron
    6. Carbonate Rocks: Limestone, Calcite Marble, Marlstone, Dolomite
    7. Clay and Clay Rocks
    8. Diamond
    9. Diatomite and Tripoli
    10. Feldspar
    11. Fluorite
    12. Graphite
    13. Gypsum and Anhydrite
    14. Kaolin
    15. Magnesite
    16. Mica (Muscovite, Phlogopite, Vermiculite)
    17. Olivine
    18. Phosphates
    19. Quartz and Silicon
    20. Quartzite
    21. Quartz Sand and Gravel
    22. Sodium Carbonate, Sulfate and Alum
    23. Sulphur
    24. Talc and Pyrophyllite
    25. Volcaniclastic Rocks
    26. Wollastonite
    27. Zeolites
  2. Salt Deposits
    1. Salt Minerals and Salt Rocks
    2. The Formation of Salt Deposits
    3. Post-Depositional Fate of Salt Rocks
    4. From Exploration to Salt Mining

The practice of Economic Geology

  1. Geological Concepts and Methods in the Mining Cycle
    1. Economic Considerations
    2. The Search for Mineral Deposits (Exploration)
    3. Development and Valuation of Mineral Deposits
    4. Mining and the Environment
    5. Deep Geological Disposal of Dangerous Waste
  2. Fossil Energy
    1. The Substance of Coal
    2. Peat Formation and Coal Deposits
    3. The Coalification Process
    4. Post-Depositional Changes of Coal Seams
    5. Applications of Coal Geology
  3. Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits
    1. Species of Natural Bitumens, Gas and Kerogen, and their Properties
    2. The Origin of Petroleum and Natural Gas
    3. Formation of Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits
    4. Exploring for Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits
    5. The Exploitation of Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits
    6. Tar Sand, Asphalt, Pyrobitumen and Shungite
    7. Oil Shales
    8. Environmental Aspects of Oil and Gas Production