What is denudation: Denudation is the combined action of erosion and weathering. Weathering is the breaking of rock particles from it, while erosion is the transportation of these separated particles away from the parent rock. The processes of erosion and weathering are, collectively, called denudation. In other words ”denudation means” means the separation and transportation of rock particles from their parent rock.
What is an outcrop: An ”outcrop” is the area where the bedrock is exposed on the ground surface. Or the outer exposed part of the bedrock is known as the outcrop. In other words, the exterior of the bedrock is known as the ”outcrop”.
Outcrops created by the process of denudation
Outlier and Inlier: An ”outlier” is the patch of the younger rocks surrounded by older rocks on all sides. It is formed when a part of a bed or a series of beds gets separated from the main mass by erosion. An ”inlier” may be defined as a patch of older strata, which is surrounded on all sides by younger strata.
Klippe and Window: The reverse or overthrust of faults are found in complex fold mountains. In these faults, the older rocks are thrust over the younger ones. in such a case if erosion worked and detached a patch of the traveled mass from the main thrust mass, thus isolated is called the ”Klippe” and the area where the underlying younger rocks are exposed, is called the ”window”. In other words, ”klippe” is a nappe outlier and the window is a nappe inlier.
Plateau, Mesa, and Butte: The plateaus, mesa, and buttes are erosional landforms that develop in the horizontal sedimentary strata with alternate resistant and non-resistant beds. The resistant beds support the elevated flat areas and the softer beds erode to form the gentler slope.
A ”plateau” is a broad flat area that rises to a height of over 300 meters above its surroundings. Few plateaus have elevations much higher than 3000 meters. The Tibetan plateau has an average height of above 5000 meters. Smaller plateaus are smaller ”mesas”. A mesa may be defined as a low flat-topped upland having steep sides. The ”butte” is a term used for an isolated hill with steep sides and a small crest. With continued erosion, mesas may become butte.
Cuesta and Escarpment: A ”cuesta” is an asymmetric ridge formed in regions where rock beds are gently inclined and hard and soft rocks alternate. One side of a cuesta has a long gentle slope determined by the dip of the resistant bed while the other side has the steep slope formed at the erosional edge of the resistant bed where it is undercut by the erosion of the softer bed underneath. The side having a steep slope is called the ”escarpment”.
Hogback: A ”hogback” is the narrow steep ridge formed by the erosion of the nearly vertical or steeply inclined resistant rock beds.
- Folds (elements of folds, types of folds,)
- Mechanics of Folds
- Recognition of a Fold
- Introduction to faults
- Classification/types of the Faults
- Pieces of evidence of Faults
- Joints and their classification
- Concept of Stress and Strain