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Earthquake resisting structures

Controling an earthquake: In an earthquake-prone area if it is known that the strain is accumulating, the threat of earthquakes can be reduced by the following methods. A number of deep hole are drilled along a fault line in which stress has been detected. then water is pumped down into the holes. This water acts …

Prediction of earthquakes

In seismic regions, earthquakes occur frequently and cause loss of life and property. This emphasizes the need for reliable methods of earthquake production. To predict earthquakes it is necessary to detect the fault lines where strains are building up. The following methods are used to locate areas under stains. Read other similar articles In Japan, …

Global distribution of the Earthquakes

Earthquakes occur in geologically active areas, such as mid-oceanic ridges and mountain-building regions. The zones where earthquakes occur frequently are known as ”Seismic belts”. The principal seismic belts on the earth’s surface are as follow: Read more related articles Circum Pacific Belt: This belt encircles the Pacific ocean and more or less overlaps the belt …

How to locate the epicentre of an Earthquake?

The first thing you need to find the location of an earthquake is the recorded seismograms of three differently located seismographs. You will also need a map of the world, a ruler, a pencil, and a compass for drawing the lines for locating the epicenter. Now you can easily find the location of the epicenter …

Earthquake intensity scales

The effect of an earthquake is, generally, stronger near the epicenter and decreases gradually outwards. To have an idea about the intensity of an earthquake in different areas, intensity scales have been devised. The two commonly used intensity scales are : (i) Rossi Forel Scale, and (ii) Richter Scale (1). Rossi Forel Scale: The earthquake

Origin of earthquakes (Elastic Rebound Theory)

Earthquakes are classified on two bases, one is surface causes, volcanic eruption, and tectonic movement. Among these types, volcanic earthquakes are the most common and disastrous, therefore discussing the tectonic type of earthquakes is very important. The reason behind tectonic earthquakes is the tectonic movement of crustal plates. There are three types of tectonic movements. …

Classification of Earthquakes

Classification I. Depending upon their mode of origin, the earthquakes are classified into the following groups. Earthquake due to surface causes: Earthquakes may be generated by landslips and collapse of the roofs of underground caverns and other surface disturbances. Most of these are very minor, and some are even rarely felt. All causes of an …

Types of Earthquake waves

An earthquake is caused by the seismic waves generated by the transverse movement of landmasses at plate tectonic boundaries, volcanic eruption, compression in the earth’s crust, groundwater extraction, geothermal drilling, construction of tracking, and injection wells, and havoc of a powerful nuclear bomb blast. All these events cause seismic waves. The seismic waves spread spreads …

Earthquakes

1. Introduction to an Earthquake An Earthquake may be defined as the shaking and trembling of the Earth’s surface caused by sudden releases of stress with the crust of Earth. Thus an earthquake releases the energy that has been gradually stored through the stress of increasing deformation of rocks. The released energy takes the form …

How to protect in earthquakes?

Earthquakes bring many changes to the natural and cultural landscape, but the greatest damage caused when buildings fail to survive an earthquake. Earthquake does not directly kill people, but people are killed by their own constructed buildings, which are vulnerable to an earthquake. Avoiding constructing buildings while fearing earthquakes is irrational. So in order to …

Measurement of Earthquakes

Measuring of an Earthquake: Generally, earthquakes occur at depths of lesser than 100 kilometers under the ground. The earthquakes are frequently noted by the instruments like seismograph on daily basis. The location of the earthquakes are also determined by the seismographs. The point at which an earthquake is noted is known as the focus-point or …

Types of Earthquake waves

An earthquake produces four types of waves: (1). P-Waves (Primary Waves), (2). S-Waves (Secondary Waves), (3). L-Waves (Surface Waves), and (4). Rayleigh Waves: The tectonic movement releases a huge amount of energy, which is known as Seismic energy. Seismic energy express itself in the form of seismic waves. These seismic waves are known as earthquakes. …

Changes brought about by the earthquakes?

The earthquakes cause major changes in the crust and on the surface of the Earth. Important changes are as given below: (1). Expansion of Earth’s Crust (2). Contraction of Earth (3). Disturbance of drainage system (4). Mud Volcanoes (5). Cultural Landscape (6). Landsliding (7). Fire (8). Liquefaction, Subsidence, and Related Effects (9). Tsunamis (1). Expansion …

Causes of Earthquakes

An earthquake is a natural phenomenon, which has many causes behind it. Some of these are natural while others are man-made. Among these causes, the most important are as follow; (1). Tectonic Movement causes Earthquakes: Earth’s crust is divided into large segments (fragments) separated along ridges. These segments are called plates (Lithospheric Plates). The term …

Earthquake Zones

Major Earthquake zones of the world include countries located on the Asian coast of the Pacific, the eastern coast of the Pacific covering the west coast of North America, and Latin America. Detail of the major zones is as under: The heaviest concentration of earthquakes is along the circum-pacific belt. It includes countries of Japan, …

Magnitude of Earthquakes

The intensity of an earthquake is assessed on the Rickter Scale, which was developed by geophysicist Charles Richter in 1935. This scale assigns a number to an earthquake based on the severity of the ground motion It ranges from 0 to 8+. It is logarithmic so that an earthquake with a magnitude 4 causes 10 …

What is an Earthquake?

An Earthquake may be defined as the shaking and trembling of the Earth’s surface caused by sudden releases of stress with the crust of Earth. Thus an earthquake releases the energy that has been gradually stored through the stress of increasing deformation of rocks. The released energy takes the form of seismic waves that radiate …

Ten causes of an Earthquake

An earthquake is an intense thrilling vibration through the earth’s surface. An earthquake may range from a minor vibration (difficult to feel) to a devastating earth movement. An earthquake is a catastrophic shake of the surface of the earth, which can cause tremendous changes over and under the surface of the earth. In the historic …

Branches of Geology

Geology is a vast field of science that encompasses the physical, historical, and environmental areas of study. These three areas of the study are the principal subdivisions of geology, which somehow overlap, but they also differ in significant ways overall. Therefore, we divide geology into three fundamental branches; i.e Physical Geology, Historical Geology, and Environmental …

Physical Geology

Introduction to Geology Introduction to Geology Branches of Geology Scope of Geology Influential Geologists Minerals Intrusive Igneous Rocks Volcanism Weathering and Soil Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Measuring Geological Time Earth’s Interior Plate Tectonics Earthquakes Geological structures Streams and Floods Groundwater Mass Wasting Glaciation Shorelines Geology of the Oceans Climate Change Geological …