Website Earth Science, Geography, Geology, Engineering Geology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Astrononomy, Human Geography, Environmental Sciences, mapping, map usa February 2022 - Geo Studies Organization

Monthly archives: February, 2022

How Old is the Earth

How old is earth

The age of the earth as determined by current methods of radiometric dating is about 4600 million years. Before the discovery of radiometric dating, several attempts were made to determine the age of the earth. The important one’s are as follows.

From the history of organic evolution.
From the rate of sedimentation.
From salinity of seawater.
From the rate of Cooling.



Nebula: A nebula is a cloud of gas and dust in outer space, visible in the night sky either as an indistinct bright patch or as a dark silhouette against other luminous matter. Axis: An imaginary line about which a body rotates. Equatorial Zones: Equatorial regions are located in a band around the Equator and cover about …

Origin of the Earth

Origin of the earth

There are dozens of theories about the origin of the Earth. In general the theories of origin of the Solar System or earth can be divided into two groups: (i) Evolutionary theories (ii) Catastrophic Theories.

Evolutionary Theories: The theories which suggest that planets are formed during the evolution of the sun, are called ”Evolutionary Theories“. Nebular Hypothesis is an example of these theories.

Catastrophic Theories: ”Catastrophic Theories” are those which imagine that planets are formed by some special accident or catastrophe, such as the close approach of two stars or by collision of two stars. However, as the stars are so far apart in the galaxy, the possibility of such a catastrophe is extremely rare. the examples of Catastrophic Theories are the planetesimal and gaseous tidal hypothesis.

Solar System

Solar system

Solar System The Earth is a planet. It is a member of the solar system. Nine planets and the sun are the main bodies of the ”Solar System”. The planets in the order of increasing distance from the sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Each planet moves around the …

Introduction to Geology

Introduction to Geology

Geology is a Science, which is devoted to the study of the Earth. It deals with all the features of the earth’s surface, its origin, composition, structure, history, inhabitants, and processes of change in its features. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth’s materials, structures, processes, and organisms have changed over time.

Composition of Lava

Composition The composition of almost all lava of the Earth’s crust is dominated by silicate minerals: mostly feldspars, feldspathoids, olivine, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas and quartz. Rare nonsilicate lavas can form by local melting of nonsilicate mineral deposits or by separation of a magma into separate immiscible silicate and nonsilicate liquid phases. Silicate lavas Silicate lavas are molten mixtures dominated by oxygen and silicon, the Earth’s most abundant chemical elements, with smaller quantities of aluminium, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, …

Amethyst Mineral, Properties and importance

Diagnosis of Amethyst,                 This post is incomplete, it will be composed soon Chemical composition and properties of Amethyst, Physical Properties of Amethyst, Structure of Amethyst, Colours and tone of Amethys, Occurrence of Amethyst, Historical Importance of Amethyst, Metaphysical Importance of Amethyst, Artificial Synthesis of Amethyst, Cultural Association of …

Metamorphic rocks

Metamorphic rock

“Metamorphic Rocks” are formed from the older rocks when they are subjected to increased temperature, pressure, and shearing stresses at considerable depth in the earth’s crust. The older rocks may be either sedimentary, igneous, or other metamorphic rocks. During metamorphism, recrystallization takes place essentially in the solid-state and new minerals and new textures are produced. …