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Monthly archives: June, 2021

Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are islands-like structures found either underwater or above the surface in the ocean. They are built by corals and many other lime secreting marine organisms under tropical and subtropical climatic conditions. They are an underwater ecosystem built as a result of reef-building corals. They occur mainly in the warm water of the Pacific …

Sediments of Deep Sea

Marine sediments are the deposits of insoluble materials in the form of fine as well as large sediments of rocks, soil particles, and decomposed particles of living organisms. These sediments are transported from land by means of rivers, streams, ice, and wind, while some of the particles, which are organic in nature, are those which …

Features of Ocean basin floor

Mid Ocean Ridges: Mid Ocean Ridges (MOR) is a seafloor mountainous system, which is formed as a result of plate tectonic movement of the crustal plate. Its depth is 2,600 meters, and it rises about 2,000 meters above the deepest portion of an ocean basin. Mid-oceanic ridges are found in all of the major oceans. …

Depth Zones of Sea

The sea has variance in depth from coastal floor up to the deep sea floor. The profile of the sea floor has been divided into four zones: (i) littoral zone, (ii) continental shelf, (iii) continental slope, and (iv) deep sea zone (1). Littoral Zone: This is the initial zone of a sea, which is also …

Sea and Engineering

Engineers build shoreline structures mainly for two purposes: (i) For prevention of destruction of sea coasts by waves and currents, and (ii) For improvement of navigation. The chief shoreline structures are as follow: (1). Sea Wall: Sea walls are massive structures built to protect the areas lying immediately in their rear from the damaging wave …

Transportation and Deposition by Sea

Transportation by Sea: Most of the waves approach a shoreline at an angle. Consequently, the ”uprush” of water from each breaking wave is oblique. However, the ”back-flow is straight down the slope of the beach. The effect of this pattern of water movement is to transport particles of sediment in a zig-zag pattern in a …

Erosion taken out by the Sea

The forces that shape coasts are (i) Erosion Caused by Sea Waves, (ii) Transportation and deposition of the rock debris, and (iii) Tectonic Forces that caused uplifts or subsidence of the coastal lands The major agent of erosion at the shoreline are sea waves. They cause erosion in four ways: (i). Hydraulic Action: The impact …

Work of Sea

Sea Coast: The meeting place of land and sea is called the “Coast”. Sea coasts may have many kinds of shapes. Major types of sea coasts are: (i) Steep Rocky Cliff, (ii) Broad Low Beaches, (iii) Small bays alternating with rocky headlands, and (iv) Sandy Tidal Flats (1). Steep Rocky Cliffs:  It is a type …