Month: February 2021


Erosion may be defined as the wearing down of Earth’s surface through weathering and the transportation of the particles to distant places. For example, the boulder is first loosened in a mass movement and then its pieces are carried by the stream. Similarly, moving angular pieces of rocks produce etching which cuts the surface of


Weathering is the process of disintegration of rock particles from the surface of rocks is known as weathering, while erosion is the process by which the weathered particles are separated and transported from the parent rock to the low-lying areas. The combined process of weathering and erosion is known as Denudation. The weathering mass movement

Weathering and its types

Weathering: Weathering is defined as the physical disintegration and chemical alteration of Earth materials by the action of water, air, and organisms. For example, the breakdown of rocks in situ, their disintegration and decomposition without distant transportation of the products. The process of creation of new relief features and wear and tear of Earth materials

How to protect in earthquakes?

Earthquakes bring many changes to the natural and cultural landscape, but the greatest damage caused when buildings fail to survive an earthquake. Earthquake does not directly kill people, but people are killed by their own constructed buildings, which are vulnerable to an earthquake. Avoiding constructing buildings while fearing earthquakes is irrational. So in order to

Seismology, Seismic Waves, Seismograph:

Seismology is the science, which deals with all the topics related to seismic waves. The seismic waves are the pulses of energy generated by earthquakes, which can travel through all parts of the earth. These waves can be measured and recorded by an instrument called Seismograph. A seismograph consists of a pendulum with a fixed

Measurement of Earthquakes

Measuring of an Earthquake: Generally, earthquakes occur at depths of lesser than 100 kilometers under the ground. The earthquakes are frequently noted by the instruments like seismograph on daily basis. The location of the earthquakes are also determined by the seismographs. The point at which an earthquake is noted is known as the focus-point or

Types of Earthquake waves

An earthquake produces four types of waves: (1). P-Waves (Primary Waves), (2). S-Waves (Secondary Waves), (3). L-Waves (Surface Waves), and (4). Rayleigh Waves: The tectonic movement releases a huge amount of energy, which is known as Seismic energy. Seismic energy express itself in the form of seismic waves. These seismic waves are known as earthquakes.

Changes brought about by the earthquakes?

The earthquakes cause major changes in the crust and on the surface of the Earth. Important changes are as given below: (1). Expansion of Earth’s Crust (2). Contraction of Earth (3). Disturbance of drainage system (4). Mud Volcanoes (5). Cultural Landscape (6). Landsliding (7). Fire (8). Liquefaction, Subsidence, and Related Effects (9). Tsunamis (1). Expansion

Causes of Earthquakes

An earthquake is a natural phenomenon, which has many causes behind it. Some of these are natural while others are man-made. Among these causes, the most important are as follow; (1). Tectonic Movement causes Earthquakes: Earth’s crust is divided into large segments (fragments) separated along ridges. These segments are called plates (Lithospheric Plates). The term

What is mid-oceanic ridge (MOR)?

A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics. It typically has a depth of ~ 2,600 meters (8,500 ft) and rises about two kilometers above the deepest portion of an ocean basin. This feature is where seafloor spreading takes place along a divergent plate boundary. In the middle of the ocean, there